Shared Hosting

There are a variety of security issues that arise when using shared hosting solutions. In the past, PHP has tried to solve some of this issues with the safe_mode directive. However, as the PHP manual states, it “is architecturally incorrect to try to solve this problem at the PHP level.” Thus, safe_mode will no longer be available as of PHP 6.

Still, there are three php.ini directives that remain important in a shared hosting environment: open_basedir, disable_functions, and disable_classes. These directives do not depend upon safe_mode, and they will remain available for the foreseeable future.

The open_basedir directive provides the ability to limit the files that PHP can open to a specified directory tree. When PHP tries to open a file with, for example, fopen() or include, it checks the the location of the file. If it exists within the directory tree specified by open_basedir, then it will succeed; otherwise, it will fail to open the file.

You may set the open_basedir directive in php.ini or on a per-virtual-host basis in httpd.conf. In the following httpd.conf virtual host example, PHP scripts may only open files located in the /home/user/www and /usr/local/lib/php directories (the latter is often the location of the PEAR library):

<VirtualHost *>
DocumentRoot /home/user/www
ServerName www.example.org
<Directory /home/user/www>
php_admin_value open_basedir "/home/user/www/:/usr/local/lib/php/"
</Directory>
</VirtualHost>
The disable_functions and disable_classes directives work similarly,allowing you to
disable certain native PHP functions and classes for security reasons.

Any functions or classes listed in these directives will not be available to PHP applications
running on the system. You may only set these in php.ini. The following example illustrates the
use of these directives to disable specific functions and classes:
; Disable functions
disable_functions = exec,passthru,shell_exec,system
; Disable classes
disable_classes = DirectoryIterator,Directory

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